Influence Of Secondary And Micronutrients On Yield Of Sugarcane
Application of nutrients in balanced and integrated way not only sustained the productivity but also profitability, food security, nutritional security and maintaining soil health. The strategy adopted during green revolution era has created some problems of soil/land degradation (erosion, salinity, sodicity and declined productivity), high incidence of pests and diseases, imbalance input use, ground water pollution and ecological disturbances and environmental stresses. The agricultural production has shown growth not matching with the input use, indicating a decrease in total factor productivity and partial factor productivity of fertilisers and its use efficiency. As such native fertility cannot be relied upon and fertilisers has to be applied.
Smartchem Technologies Ltd. Pune has come out with an idea of combined use of secondary and micronutrients by supplying them under one pack as “MAHADHAN TOTAL” so that end user shall be benefited by getting higher quality yield and economic returns. Initially, all the deficient nutrients based on soil test were applied with graded levels so as to work out optimum level.
Based on reponses of different crops to varied secondary and micronutrients either in isolation or combined form, the MAHADHAN TOTAL combo has been formulated for sugarcane and the same demanded and used by many sugarcane growers .As such, It has given very encouraging results. They are explained herewith.
Fertiliser security is pre- requisite to food security. The low and declining crop response to fertilisers from 15 to 6 kg grain per kg of NPK fertiliser has become a cause of concern. The increasing deficiencies of secondary and micronutrients have started affecting crop response to applied NPK. All plants require an adequate quantity of essential nutrients at right time for their proper growth, development and optimum yield. The soils of India under crops are generally low in N P S and Zn while the deficiencies of other nutrients are reported in certain regions. There is a big gap of about 10 m MT between demand of nutrients for food production and supply of nutrients through chemical fertilisers. The mounting pressure of boosting production from limited land would further deplete the finite micronutrients soil resource and aggravate the deficiency. The micronutrients deficiency are now wide spread especially zinc and iron throughout the country and that of manganese and boron in specific soil areas (19a). India ranks third largest user of fertilisers. However, the average consumption of fertilisers comes hardly 89 kg/ha against 141 kg/ha in 2010-11 (14).
The low and declined soil fertility are the major causes of low productivity of most of the cultivated lands. A scenario of nutrient deficiency in India show that N deficiency is universal and nearly 49, 20 and 47 per cent soils are deficient in P, K and Zn, respectively. Sulphur deficiency of 46 30 and 24 per cent as low, medium and high, respectively were recorded in 125 districts. (19). If these emerging constraints to high productivity are not timely identified, monitored and alleviated, they would reduce use efficiency of macronutrients and other inputs besides threatening the productivity, stability and ecological sustainability. Thus mineral fertilisers will continue to be of pivotal. Use of high analysis of fertilisers further aggravated mining of micronutrients and secondary essential nutrients as well which resulted in hidden hunger of these nutrients. It led to drastic decline of productivity of cropping systems at several places in the country. The loss of soil fertility, due to continuous nutrient depletion by crops without adequate replenishment poses an immediate threat to food and environmental securities. The ecosystem has been under constant pressure of abiotic and biotic stresses all through the millennium. Sugarcane being long duration crop removes large amount of nutrients. Sugarcane producing 100 tons per hectare removes approximately 205 kg N, 55 kg P, 275 kg K, 30kg S, 55 kg Ca, besides 3.5 kg Fe, 1.2 kg Mn, 0.6 kg Zn and 0.2 kg Cu from the soil. Efficient, viable and cost effective integrated nutrient supply systems will serve a potential tool to meet nutrient requirement of sugarcane. The issue of micronutrients is no more micro in nature, rather they play major role in enhancing agril. production, crop quality and efficiency of macronutrients. Accelerated depletion of micronutrients from soil reserve due to enhanced food production accentuated the micronutrients deficiencies which brought sharp reduction in productivity, crop quality as well as animal and human health. Such importance of Micronutrients in agriculture necessitates strengthening programs by developing best management options for different farming systems to recognize the nutritional security and environmental quality along with enhanced productivity and input use efficiency. Due to over mining, the deficiencies of micronutrients in soil is affecting plant and animal/human health as well. Multiple micronutrient deficiencies are emerging in many soils and crops due to intensification of cropping. Here is always need to develop suitable protocols for use . Good plant health and quality of produce are indicators are of nutrient sufficiency index in soil, which in turn renders better human and animal health.
Material and Methods
Large number of field trials were conducted both at institutional and farmer’s fields. The results are promising and recommendations were given to sugarcane for secondary and micronutrients, These recommendations were considered for formulation of “MAHADHAN TOTAL”. Considering nutritional requirement of sugarcane, 60 Kg/acre(150 kg/ha) of “MAHADHAN TOTAL” was applied in two equal splits. i.e. at 45 DAP and 90 DAP (days after planting) through soil in addition to general dose of fertiliser to adsali, pre-seasonal, suru and 15 and 60 DAP to ratoon sugarcane during 2016-17. The MAHADHAN TOTAL contains 15 kg Bensulf(S) 90% S, 25 kg Magnesium Sulphate, 10kg Ferrous Sulfate, 4 kg Natural josh-containing 25 amino acids, 5 kg Zinc sulphate 33% Zn, and 1 Kg Mahadhan TejDTB containing 15% B . Thus in all 60 kg combo pack is used for one acre and applied in two equal splits to sugarcane besides general recommended fertiliser dose. The farmers were selected from each GAT, The soil samples were tested for fertility constituents and guided them to follow schedule and record physiological parameters viz.no. of tillers, no. of inter nodes, height, vigor , crop canopy and finally yield,
Results and Discussion:
The productivity of sugarcane found to be adversely affected by diverse weather conditions, excessive rains/ draught, scarcity of water, land and labor, high cost of inputs, scarcity of organic manures, inadequate and imbalanced use of plant nutrients, problem soils, improper agronomic practices etc. The main strategies for enhancement of sugarcane production are based on increasing productivity two times greater than before by prioritizing the action outlining research, development and extension. This is possible from Eco region specific technology generation based on maximum productivity of available natural resources. Sugarcane is a management responsive crop and produces maximum biomass by making best use of sunlight under a set of management practices. Integrated management of water, nutrient, pests and development of cost effective, ecofriendly approaches. It is possible to raise productivity level.
It is observed that to sugarcane, application of Mahadhan Total @30Kg/acre initially has given boost in tillers, its growth and development. The number of tillers increased over NPK fertiliser alone. Further, application of remaining 30 Kg Mahadhan Total at final earthing up stage of sugarcane resulted in increasing number of internodes, length of internodes, height of plant and canopy development. This indicates that there is a synergistic effect in increasing nutrient availability and uptake by sugarcane by creating balance between deficient and sufficient nutrient status present in the soil. Presently the crop growth is quite satisfactory. The yield data will be collected during ensuing crushing season to validate our earlier observations.
Written by – Vijayrao Patil and P. B. Shinde
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Use of leaf nutrient analysis in combination with visual evaluation of malnutrition symptoms can complement a grower’s soil testing program and add additional information that will improve nutrient management decisions. . It is also used to help diagnose a nutritional problem in a particular field or localized area of a field where poor growth or other symptoms have been observed. Although specific fertiliser recommendations are not provided for a given leaf nutrient analysis, deficiencies or imbalances indicate where additions or changes in the fertility program are needed. Leaf analysis and knowledge of visual symptoms can be used along with soil-test values and fertiliser and crop records to make improved decisions regarding fertilization.
There is always need to develop suitable protocols for use,
Accelerated depletion of micronutrients from soil reserve due to enhanced food production accentuated the micronutrients deficiencies which brought sharp reduction in productivity, crop quality as well as animal and human health. Such importance of Micronutrients in agriculture necessitates strengthening programs by developing best management options for different farming systems to recognize the nutritional security and environmental quality along with enhanced productivity and input use efficiency