Tomato Farming Tips
Tomato is a warm season crop. Optimum temperature for seed germination is 26–32° C. Well drained loamy soils rich in organic matter with a pH range of 6.5–7.5 are ideal.
Plough the land to a fine tilth. Thoroughly prepare the field with the addition of FYM (25 t/ha) and form ridges and furrows at a spacing of 60 cm. Apply 2 kg/ha of Azospirillum and 2 kg/ha of Phosphobacteria by mixing with 50 kg of FYM.
Two systems of spacing are generally followed, based on the type of crop variety or hybrid, either 60 × 45 cm or 45 × 30 cm. Seed Rate is 160–200 g/ac for varieties and 60–80 g/ac for hybrids.
Mulch with black LDPE sheets of 25 micron thickness and bury both the ends into the soil to a depth of 10 cm.
Pre-Fertiliser schedule recommended for soil application :
Fertigation schedule in tomato cultivation :
Foliar application schedule in tomato crop :
Irrigate the furrows and transplant 25-day old seedlings on the sides of ridges. Light irrigation needs to be given on the third day of planting. During summer season, irrigation every 5–7 days is necessary, whereas in winter 10–15 day interval is sufficient.
Weeds need to be managed both in the tomato nursery as well as in the main field, after transplanting the tomato.
Application of pre-emergence herbicides like Pendimethalin (1 kg a.i./ha) or Fluchloralin (1 kg a.i./ha) 1–3 days after transplanting tomato and by a hand weeding done 30 days after planting, help in keeping the weeds in check.
- Fruit Borer Management
- Collection and destruction of damaged fruits and grown up caterpillars.
- Growing of trap crops like marigold and castor on the borders of the tomato field.
- Spraying of any of the insecticides on need basis: Emamectin Benzoate @ 100 gm/ac or Chloranthraniprole @ 60 ml/ac or Flubendimide @ 40 ml/ac or Thiodicarb 200 gm/ac or Spinosad 75 ml/ac.
- Spraying of Azadirachtin 1.0 % EC @ 2.0 ml/ lit or Indoxacarb 14.5 % SC @ 8 ml/10 lit or Flubendiamide 20 WG @ 5 g/10 lit or Novaluron 10 % EC @ 7.5 ml/10 lit also helps in control of fruit borer.
- Whitefly Management
- Uproot and destroy the diseased leaf curl plants
- Use yellow sticky traps at 12/ha to attract and kill insects.
- Soil application of carbofuran 3% G @ 40 kg /ha or spraying of Dimethoate 30 % EC (1.0 ml/lit) or Malathion 50 % EC (1.5 ml/ lit) or Oxydemeton –Methyl 25 % EC (1.0 ml/ lit.) or Thiamethoxam 25 % WG (4.0 ml/10 lit.) or Acetamiprid @ 100 gm/lt
- Damping off Management
- Using raised seed bed
- Providing light, but frequent irrigations for better drainage.
- Drenching with Copper oxychloride 0.2% or Bordeaux mixture 1%.
- Seed treatment with fungal culture Trichoderma viride (4 g/kg of seed) or Thiram (3 g/kg of seed) is the only preventive measure to control the pre-emergence damping off.
- Spraying of 0.2% Metalaxyl when there is cloudy weather
- Leaf curl Management
- Keep yellow sticky traps @ 12/ha to monitor the white fly.
- Raise barrier crops-cereals around the field.
- Removal of weed host. Protected nursery in net house or green house.
- Spray Imidachloprid 0.05 % or Dimethoate 0.05% @ 15, 25, 45 days after transplanting to control vector.
Tomatoes are harvested and properly graded and packed in corrugated boxes or wooden baskets in order to avoid post harvest transit loss during transportation.