Grapes Farming Tips
In India grapes are grown in sub-tropical, hot tropical and mild tropical climatic regions. The best soil types for grapes are known to be well-drained, loamy to sandy-loam soils that are also rich in organic matter. Poorly drained alkaline soils should be avoided.
The land is tilled and laid into plots of 120 × 180 m separated by 3 m wide roads. Trenches of 75 cm width, 75 cm depth and 115 m length are dug. They are closed with top soil, up to a height of 45 cm after 15 days exposure to the sun.
The number of vines per acre depends upon the varieties and planting system.
Head system 1,320 vines/ac, Kniffin system 435 vines/ac, Bower system 224 vines/ac. Spacing generally varies with the varieties and soil fertility. A spacing of 6 × 3 m or 4 × 3 m is followed for more vigorous varieties and that of 3 × 3 m or 3 × 2 m for less vigorous varieties.
Training of Vines: Many training systems are in vogue in India, but the most popular ones are Bower, Telephone and Flat Roof Gable systems. Pruning of vines is an important and essential intercultural practice adopted by the grape growers.
Application of organic manure helps in maintaining the organic matter of the soil, which is very important for grape crop nutrition. Grape is also a heavy feeder and it should be supplied through proper fertiliser application at different stages of vegetative growth, fruiting and berry development stages. Most grape growers have started adopting drip irrigation and supplying the nutrients through the drip system.
Nitrogen, Phosphorus, Potassium, Calcium, Magnesium, Sulphur, Iron, Manganese, Zinc, Copper and Boron
|Nitrogen||Mahadhan Sulphate (Ammonium Sulphate), Mahadhan Calcium Nitrate|
|Potassium||Mahdhan Potash, Sulphate of Potash, Potassium Schoenite,|
|N + P||Mahadhan 24:24:0, Mahadhan 20:20:0-13, Mahadhan 12:61:0|
|N + K||Mahadhan 13:0:45|
|N + P + K||Mahadhan 12:32:16, Mahadhan 10:26:26, Mahadhan 16:16:16,
Mahadhan 19:19:19, Mahadhan 13:40:13
|Calcium||Mahadhan Calcium Nitrate (Field Grade)|
|Sulphur||Mahadhan Bensulf, Zinco Bensulf, Mahasulf|
|Ca + Mg + S||Calcium -Magnesium- Sulphur|
|Iron||Mahadhan Kranti Ferrous Sulf (for soil application), Mahadhan Tez Fe (Chelates)|
|Zinc||Mahadhan Kranti Zinksulf 21% & 33% (for soil application), Mahadhan Tez Zn (Chelates)|
|Manganese||Mahadhan Tez Combi|
|Copper||Mahadhan Tez Combi|
|Boron||Mahadhan Tez DOT and DTB|
Mahadhan provides a range of fertiliser products that grape growers can apply directly to the soil and for use through the drip system. The schedule to be followed is detailed below :
Fertigation schedule recommended for grape growers who have drip irrigation facilities is given below (Table 1):
Foliar application recommended for Grapes for new plantations (Table 2):
Foliar application recommended for a grape garden (After April pruning) (Table 3):
Foliar application recommended for a grape garden (After October pruning) (Table 4):
Proper soil moisture is maintained through regular irrigation of the crop. Drip irrigation systems help in meeting the water requirements of the grape plantation in a more efficient manner.
Weeds between the rows of vines are removed mechanically by tractor-drawn implements. Within the rows, weeds are manually hoed and removed. Sometimes post-emergent weedicides such as glyphosate (2 kg/ha) or paraquat (7.5 kg/ha) is sprayed on to the weeds without allowing any spray to fall on the grape foliage.
- Nematodes Management
Application of 60 g of Carbofuran 3G or Phorate 10G granules per vine at a week before pruning followed by profuse irrigation helps in controlling the nematodes. The soil should not be disturbed for at least 15 days. Thereafter normal manuring may be done. Application of neemcake 200 g/vine also helps in controlling nematodes.
- Mealy bug Management
Spray application of dichlorvas @ 1ml mixed with neem oil 2ml or tridemorph @ 1 gm helps in minimising the damage of mealy bug.
- Powdery mildew Management
Spraying 0.3% Wettable sulphur or dusting of Sulphur @ 2.5 – 4.0 kg/acre in the morning hours helps in controlling the disease.
- Anthracnose Management
Spraying 1 % Bordeaux mixture or Thio phanate methyl 400 gm or Copper Oxy Chloride @ 400 gm/acre or Hexaconazole @ 200 ml/ acre
- Downy mildew Management
Spraying of 1 % Bordeaux mixture or any other copper fungicide at 0.25 % concentration.
Grapes are harvested at the right stage and properly packed so that farmers get the best price for their produce.